Doctor of Philosophy in Botany (Plant Biology), 1992
University of Alexandria, Egypt in conjunction with Eberhard Karls University, Tübingen, Germany
The thesis was focused on the application of tissue culture techniques to select salt tolerant cell lines of economically important fruit trees, Almond (Prunus amygdalus) and Carob (Ceratonoa siliqua).
Master of Science in Botany (Plant Biology), 1986
University of Alexandria, Egypt
The thesis was focused on plant adaptation to habitats diversity by studying the spatial and temporal variations in morphology, phenology and nutrient flax of the common desert species (Asphodelus microcarpus and Zygophyllum album) at North-western ecosystems of Egypt.